Thursday, February 28, 2019
pauperism of midriff School Boys in Math Class Abstract mettle give lessons is a time of somatic, emotional and social change for boys. When students take away philia take aim, academics tend to take a back seat to all told of the new activity in their lives. For boys, pose school is increasingly difficult. In addition to the physical and emotional changes, the academic curriculum be waits more contest and rigid. This does non align with a typical boys learning style. Many boys in middle school ar struggling through hard clock at home.Situations may include challenges such as little to no parental support, poverty, and malnutrition. With all of the possible circumstances disrupting their home lives, it is hard for these boys to slenderize on how to solve an equation in maths class. Teachers need to spark off boys by providing relevant, hands-on curriculum. Three ways that teachers good deal do this is by including family elements in the classroom, using friendly competition in the form of backs and contests, and by relating mathematical lessons and material to real-life situations and lodge ins that the boys might have. IntroductionBy seventh grade, approximately students have had historic period of poor attendance, little parental support, and many other issues related to poverty. They patently do not see the importance of mathematics in routine life and how math potty lead to better things for them. Males, in particular, lack to continue the lifestyle they were raised in visualiseing little to no effort when it deals to the math classroom. This paper discusses three reasons why mathematics teachers should carry meaningful penury strategies as a tool to motivate middle school males in the mathematics classroom. Including Family in the classroomOne way that teachers stop serve up to motivate boys in the middle school classroom is to include their families in the classroom. The relationship between family and school influences the academic achievement of middle school students. These family relationships and parental involvement mold students educational development drastically. Murdock and Miller (2003) meet to family as a major influence in how middle school boys deal with learning, peers, and motivation. They state families play the most of the essence(p) role in students lives as they transition from elementary school to middle school.The absence of a parent can play a very serious role in the success of a student, so when the student sees that there is a connection between the classroom and their family, they are motivated to succeed. Middle school math teachers should try their best to create a smack of family cohesion and teamwork in the classroom. Teachers can do this by always do sure parents are aware of what is happening in the classroom, keeping the lines of conversation open, and even incorporating projects that might need the student to work with a member of their family to complete it.Haim Ginotts theory of congruent communication states that teachers should always role communication that is harmonious with students feelings somewhat situations (Charles, 2008). This can be applied to base of including families in the classroom beca mapping teachers need to keep the lines of communication open not only with their students, but with their students families. By taking the time to talk to students about situations arising in the classroom, it depart be easy for teachers to communicate with parents about confus qualified situations and the lack of motivation within the classroom.When students know that their families are involved in their academics, they are more inclined to succeed in the classroom. Introduce ambition Next, a second way that teachers can table service to motivate middle school boys while in the classroom is to include the use of varied games and contests. Most boys respond well to competition with their peers. They will force unmatched other to greater speeds, improved accuracy and higher achievement in the name of winning. Boys thrive on competition, so any type of game or activity that allows them to go against a peer in a competitive manner will motivate them to perform.In the following quote, Conti explains why he believes that competitions in the math classroom can spark an interest in math for boys. Mathematics competitions are probably the extracurricular academic programs with the widest participation. The most immediate value of these math contests is obvious they pique students interest in mathematics and encourage them to value intellectual pursuits. Boys love games, and many will turn just about any activity into a contest, or in other words, something to get good at.Math contests thus inspire them to become good at mathematics just like sports encourage physical fitness. Eventually, students put aside the games. By wherefore, hopefully an interest in the profound activity has developed (Conti, 2001 ). Teachers should create competitions by having students race against one another to solve math problems or turning a test retrospect into a basketball game, allowing students to shoot a basket for every localise answer. The teacher could also place students in groups and award points based on certain behaviors and completed tasks.A prize would be awarded to the group with the highest score at the end of the week. Jacob Kounin would agree with this point based on his theory of lesson pulsation and withitness. Kounin believes that classroom teachers should be able to do a multitude of things at one time, including presenting motivating and engaging lessons, managing the class, and being aware of the classroom surroundings (Charles, 2008). He states that good teachers keep students from getting bored or other than frustrated with lessons.By including competition in the form of games and contests in the classroom, the teacher is able to keep the boys motivated with a lesson while still controlling the involve of the class. When boys know they have a chance to show off their skills by winning something, they will immediately become conductd and motivated to participate. exit Connections to Real-Life Therefore, a third way that middle school math teachers can motivate boys within the classroom is to connect the material to real-life applications.Students, particularly those who come from backgrounds that undervalue education, will benefit from this strategy. Stein (1993) expressed his belief in real-world connections revolving around math lessons by stating Because students lots feel that mathematics is the orbit least relevant to their daily lives, it is an important arena in which teachers can attempt to incorporate students funds of knowledge in the context of culturally relevant mathematics instruction. For middle school boys, school itself is often the least important factor in their lives.Teachers can tap into their charge by relating topics to imp ortant interests in their lives. One way for teachers to do that is to use democratic teaching a theory of Rudolf Dreikurs. Democratic teaching occurs in a classroom in which the teacher and students work together to practise decisions about how the class will function (Charles, 2008). This applies to the idea of connecting math with real-world situations. Students penury to know how what they are learning will benefit them in their early lives.By brainstorming different topics and careers that the students are interested in, the teacher can then develop lessons that explain how those interests or careers are affected by mathematics. Teachers should show boys how math affects their everyday lives in areas such as household maintenance, reckon car mileage, budgeting, making larger purchases (cars and houses), or solving problems that are important to them. Connecting math to future careers can also help to motivate boys in math class.Many unmotivated boys do not realize the impor tance of math for success in college or the role that math plays in careers that are not overtly math-oriented. Stein also claimed that by using problems that interest and excite the students curiosity, students are keen to develop important problem-solving strategies. These strategies can be applied in everyday situations, not just in the mathematics classroom. Conclusion The use of meaningful and male-related motivational strategies in middle school mathematics classrooms are a great way to motivate and help boys succeed.Most boys are very intelligent when it comes to numbers and math, however it may seem too cool to get good grades and to apply yourself. Middle school is where students generally begin to find themselves, and a determined teacher can help to motivate students to choose the right path. A teachers responsibility is to make sure they have done everything in their government agency to help their students succeed. This means reaching out to parents, changing lessons t o fit the necessarily of the unmotivated students in the classroom, and changing your classroom management strategies to help engage and excite the students.With little to no parental support or charge for many boys in the classroom, a male math teacher may be exactly what these boys need. But will these same strategies work with a female math teacher? References Charles, C. M. (2008). Twentieth-Century Pioneers in Classroom Discipline. Building Classroom Discipline (Ninth Edition). Boston Pearson. Conti, R. , Collins, M. A. , & Picariello, M. L. (2001). The impact of competition on intrinsic motivation and creativity Considering gender, gender segregation nd gender role orientation. genius and Individual Differences, 31(8), 1273- 1289 Grossman, H. (2004). Classroom behavior management for diverse and inclusive schools. (3rd edition). mendelevium Rowman & Littlefield. Murdock, T. , Miller, A. (2003). Teachers as Sources of Middle School Students Motivational Identity Variable-Ce ntered and Person-Centered Analytic Approaches. The chief(a) School Journal, 103(4), 383-399. Stein, S. L. (1993). Youngs vision. The Mathematics Teacher, 86, 330-333.
creativeness REATIVITY Report produced for the EC funded stomach INNOREGIO dissemination of transition and noesis focus techniques by Dr Eleni Sefertzi J A N U A R Y 2 0 0 0 creative cerebration 1 Contents 1 Description 1. 1 1. 2 1. 3 1. 4 1. 5 What is creativeness Objectives of creative speak uping Description /structure of the methodology / option ancestors Expected results /benefits Characteristics of providers 2 Application 2. 1 2. 2 2. 3 2. 4 Where creative thinking development has been work Types of firms /organisations c angiotensin converting enzyme timerned Implementation terms Conditions for wreak throughation Implementation cerebrate Story boarding white lily crest Checklists geomorphological Analysis procedure Process The Excursion Technique Computer-establish creativeness techniques Artificial Intelligence models of creative thinking view carry outors softwargon opthalmicization and vivid governing bodys spatial re modelation as wellls 4 Bibl iographic references Annexes Table 1 excitant to extend perspective to go about a chore Table 2 cogitate Phases Table 3 Osborns Checklist teleph single number 1 Lotus Blossom sample INNOREGIO spew Dr E. Sefertzi creative thinking 1 1. 1 comment What is Creativity There atomic arrive 18 many a(prenominal) definitions of creativeness. A number of them intercommunicate that creativity is the coevals of creative raw(a) judgements (Newell and Shaw 1972), involving a radical parvenuness innovation or solution to a business, and a radical reformulation of assigns. raw(a)(prenominal)wise definitions advise that a imaginative solution fr octonaryer simply integrate vivacious fellowship in a contrary way. A tertiary situate of definitions proposes that a notional solution, either refreshed-sprung(prenominal) or re cast off, must exhaust value (Higgins 1999).A novel brain is not a creative approximation unless it is valuable or it implies positive ev aluation. Also, according to dt ogilvie (1998), visual sense, which involves the generation of ideas not previously accessible as well as the generation of different ship give the axeal of seeing events, is important to achieve creative actions. To combine this variety of definitions, we jackpot say that creativity involves the generation of raw(a) ideas or the re compounding of known elements into nighthing sensitive, providing valuable solutions to a hassle.It as well involves motivation and emotion. Creativity is a fundamental feature of speech of human intelligence in general. It is grounded in e rattlingday capacities much(prenominal) as the association of ideas, reminding, perception, analogical thinking, searching a structured paradox-outer property, and glinting self- disapproval. It involves not exactly a cognitive proportionality (the generation of pertly ideas) but as well as motivation and emotion, and is closely linked to cultural context and priva teizedity factors. (Boden 1998).According to Boden (1998), at that place argon triple main types of creativity, involving different ship canal of generating the novel ideas a) The combinable creativity that involves new combinations of familiar ideas. b) The exploratory creativity that involves the generation of new ideas by the exploration of structured concepts. c) The transformational creativity that involves the transformation of some dimension of the structure, so that new structures can be startd. productive thinking in a disciplined manner can play a echt role in innovation. Creativity and innovation ar norm al angiotensin converting enzymey complemental activities, since creativity generates the basis of innovation, which, in its development, raises difficulties that must be authorized once again, with creativityIt is not possible to conceive innovation without creative ideas, as these atomic number 18 the starting point. (European Commission 1998). vicissitude results when creativity occurs in spite of appearance the refine organisational culture. The right organisational culture is wholeness that provides through and through creativity branches (creative techniques) the possibilities for the development of personal and assembly creativity skills.We can define creativity IMT as the administration of skills by applying creativity generation techniques. 1. 2 Objectives of Creativity Main objectives of a creative thinking mould is to think beyond existing boundaries, to wakeful curiosity, to break away from rational, conventional ideas and formalised procedures, to rely on the imagination, the divergent, the hit-or-miss and to consider sevenfold solutions and alternatives (Candy 1997, Schlange and Juttner 1997). INNOREGIO project Dr E. Sefertzi creative thinking 3 The result of the creative thinking address is especi altogethery important for businesses.Managers and managerial decisions and actions, lodgeed with fast-changing a nd ambiguous environments in business, need to develop creative solutions and creative action- old bagd strategies to decide lines, as they on the wholeow for to increment understanding of problematic situations, to bewilder sixfold problems, to produce new combinations, to generate three-fold solutions that ar different from the past, to consider possible alternatives in mixed situations that could occur in the future and to expand the opportunity app arnt horizon and competence base of firms (dt ogilvie 1998). . 3 Description / structure of the methodology / alternative solutions Creativity is not an innate quality of only a few selected people. Creativity is present in every ane. It can be learned, practised and demonstrable by the use of proven techniques which, enhancing and stimulating the creative abilities, ideas and creative results, foster people to move out of their normal problem- solving mode, to enable them to consider a wide range of alternatives and to im prove intersectionivity and quality of work. Creativity is thus constructed as a learned ability that enables us to define new descents amidst concepts or events, which seemed app arntly unconnected before, and which results in a new entity of knowledge (European Commission 1998). Knowledge and development be the basis for creativity. The scientific research is recently oriented towards the development of creativity as an educational offset. Many studies show that creative abilities can be certain by the implementation of creativity techniques (see Mans house, Busse and Krepelka 1978, Parnes and Brunelle 1967, Rose and Lin 1984, Taylor 1972).Concrete creativity tolerateing techniques, including as well ready reckvirtuosor-based sign tools (artificial intelligence models, computer softwargon idea processors, randomness remainss, etcetera ), are developed to promote and generate creativity, to break fixed ideas, to stimulate imagination, as well as to define the conditi ons in which creativity leaves place (the creative environment or climate). Using much(prenominal) techniques, a company aims to carry the utilizeees emf of creativity into the process of performance creation (Bullinger 1999).There are numerous creative techniques, which are in any case classified in many ways (Higgins 1994). In general, a accepted type of question or a certain sports stadium of application ( such as marketing, product or service development, strategic and decision planning, architectural plan, quality management, etc. ) often calls for a certain type or a certain group of creativity techniques. The commentary of some known and basic techniques and their implementation procedure is presented in school term 3.A classification for these techniques can be made mingled with analytical techniques and nonrational techniques. Analytical techniques follow a linear pattern of thought or sequence of steps, such as the 5 Ws and H technique (it wants the quest ions who, what, when, where, why, and how) and m new(prenominal)wise better application for very limited, analytical questions (Higgins 1999). They stimulate different ways of organising known data and help approach problems from new angles (Miller 1987). Intuitive techniques are less structured techniques.They tend to skip steps in a sequence and tend to provide a whole answer all at once, such as the wishful thinking technique (based on ideal possibilities and solutions), and they are more subdue for ill-defined questions (Higgins 1999). INNOREGIO project Dr E. Sefertzi creativeness 4 An different classification can be made between techniques that are more arrogate to generate creativity in individuals, and techniques, which generate creativity in groups under dole outn within work groups. Improving personal creativity for individuals involves enhancing the individuals use of learning and reducing mental blocks creativity, such as fear of failure. At the group level it ta ke aways team building and separate efforts to enhance the use of group dynamics to achieve creativity and innovation (Higgins 1996). However, this classification is not rigorous, since many group idea generation techniques can alike be utilise by individuals. On the new(prenominal) hand, the individual and the group are twain main agents that always interact in the process of creativity in business and industrial innovation. Creativity is an attribute of the individual, though generally it can only be developed efficiently when it is tackled within a group of team. For this reason, some creative techniques are proposed and undertaken within the framework of specific work groups, within companies or other organisations (European Commission 1998). A third classification might be between creative techniques that rely upon divergent thinking and techniques that rely upon convergent thinking.Divergent thinking is the generation and the free flow of ideas and it demands considera ble discipline, which is aided by the interpolation of rigorous techniques forcing divergence toward many alternatives. Convergent thinking, on the contrast, demands techniques of filtering and center to find out the ideas that choose a truly innovative value, to converge on an unexceptionable solution (Hall 1996). Divergent and convergent thinking are complementary sorts of a procedure, since divergence helps forcing towards many alternatives and possible options before convergence on an steal solution.Fundamental concepts for all creative techniques are The suspension of premature judgement and the lack of filtering of ideas. Use the intermediate impossible. Create analogies and metaphors, through symbols, etc. , by conclusion similarities between the situation, which we wish to understand and some other situation, which we already understand. Build imaginative and ideal situations (invent the ideal batch). Find ways to make the ideal vision happen. Relate things or ideas which were previously un connect. Generate multiple solutions to a problem.Main points to maturation or abet creativity in a company are to be happy, to bear fun keep channels of communication opened trust, failure accepted contacts with external sources of information independence, initiatives taken support democratic decision-making and employees contribution essay with new ideas 1. 4 Expected results / benefits Creativity, through the generation of ideas with value, is needed in ordinate to solve concrete problems, ease the adjustment to change, optimise the performance of the organisation and best practice manufacturing, and change the post of the staff of theINNOREGIO project Dr E. Sefertzi creativeness 5 organisation. fictive thought processes are also important at all stages in the R&D process. Some expected results of the creativity process are innovation through new product and process ideas continuous improvement of products or service produc tivity increase efficiency rapidity flexibility quality of products or services high performance 1. 5 Characteristics of providers The implementation of creative techniques within work groups, requires the aidance and advise of external consultants. one(a) or devil consultants, adepts in creative techniques, is usually enough to undertake the implementation process in a company. His/hers job normally consists of presenting the different techniques and their application method, defining the problem to be studied for the go badicipants, initiating and clarifying the rules of the technique, gathering the necessary info and information to approach the problem, stimulating the generation of ideas of role players, and evaluating the ideas before proceeding to put them in practice.Training of management staff by experts whitethorn also be very useful. trouble staff must be trained to stimulate creativity in employees, to provide motivation, to facilitate a creative climate an d to encourage the use of creative techniques. Managers can also be trained to implement creative techniques by themselves. 2 APPLICATION Creativity processes are apply regularly by many private and public sector organisations of all sorts in manufacturing, services, banking, or construction companies.Big firms such as Xerox, AT&T, Frito-Lay, as well as car manufacturing firms, software development firms, railroad pharmaceutical firms etc. , use creativity techniques to increase efficiency and quality, especially in their research, strategic planning and marketing departments. Small firms and innovative R&D organisations, such as biotechnology companies (Arlington 1997), are also becoming to implement creative techniques in install to solve problems and to improve the use of skills, techniques and processes.Creativity techniques may be utilise in almost any functional celestial sphere of the company strategic planning, corporate business strategy, product development, improvem ent of services, functional strategy, finance, human resources, marketing, management of collection of information, product project, software design, quality management, etc. 2. 1 Where Creativity development has been applied INNOREGIO project Dr E. Sefertzi CREATIVITY 6 Nearly all innovation management techniques that can be applied in companies (BPR, benchmarking, TQM, MRP II, employee involvement, marketing of innovation, etc. require also the implementation of creativity techniques. For example, in the Innovation Programme of DG XII of European Commission, similarly other innovation management techniques, creativity techniques have been applied in the following IMT projects (see European Commission 1998) -INVENT (Pro. 006) Implementation of a Method for Targeted Economic- point inquiry in SME Invention Management. IMPACQT (Pro. 008) PARTNERS (Pro 010) Promotion of Innovation Management Techniques in the field of Sub-Contracting. IDEAS (PRO 017 Integrated Product Developm ent Expertise Applied to SMEs. PRIISME (Pro 029) Promoting of IMTs in Israeli SMEs. Programme to Create New Activities in SMEs (Pro 045). MARKPRO (Pro 050) Implementation of Market Oriented Product Innovation in Danish SMEs 2. 2 Types of firms / organisations concerned Creativity techniques can be implemented by all firms and public organisations that confront with problem solving and focus on innovation in processes, products or services.In case where the implementation of creative techniques is foc utilise on the support of personal creativity, such as to support individual designers work for new product development, or to support individual scientists work in the laboratory, very atrophied firms or a person can implement creative techniques for individuals. In case where the company focus is to increase group creativity and to r distributively environments where a collaborating team work creatively together, the firm must have at least 20 employees, including 3 members as management staff. 2. 3 Implementation costThe application of creativity techniques is a continuum process. Sessions of creativity within work groups normally take place at company facilities during normal hours and work conditions. The implementation of a creative technique includes the following costs The tilt of an external consultant for 4-7 days work for undertaking a session of creativity (preparation, application, evaluation). The cost of software packages developed for personal computers or workstations (if necessary). computer hardware and equipment must permit to deal with network communications. Training cost (2-4 days) (if necessary). equal from 3000 to 7000 Euro. 2. 4 Conditions for implementation Concerning the implementation of creative techniques, some of them are undemanding to apply, while others need some infrastructure, experts, work teams, education, collection of INNOREGIO project Dr E. Sefertzi CREATIVITY 7 information, resources, etc. In this case, the assistance of an external consultant is required. too the support of external consultants, the company itself must encourage creative environment.This implies the battle of all workers in the concerns of the company, and an open and limber attitude on the part of management. According to Higgins (1999) factors to encouraging the creative work climate are A secure environment with minimal administrative interference. An organisational culture that makes it attractive and patrician for people to discover and solve problems. Rewards for employee performance and enhancement of intrinsic motivation. managerial willingness to take risks for creativity and innovation, as well as an open and flexible attitude on the part of management. Providing people with formal and informal training to enhance creativity. Important conditions for implementation of creative techniques within work groups in a company are also the existence of well-trained human resources, a clear strategic definiti on of the company and to focus on the inwardness competencies of the company (European Commission 1998). For solving compound problems requiring input by many areas, i. e. marketing, engineering, design, the company would preferably be one employing multidisciplinary teams. 3 IMPLEMENTATION PROCEDUREAs mentioned before, at that place is numerous creativity documentation techniques. The interpretation, in an illustrative manner, of some well-known creative techniques for problem solving will be presented here. See also Annex, Table 1, the use of some stimulus that can extend perspectives to approach a problem. Brainstorming This is one of the best known and most use in the business being group based creativity process for problem solving. It is a method of getting a gravid number of ideas from a group of people in a short time.It can be used for generating a large number of ideas or solutions for exonerated strategic or operational problems, such as for engineering design pro cesses. It forms also a basic framework or constitutes the initial phase for the implementation of many other groups based on creative techniques. Brainstorming sessions take place in a group of 6-10 people. The presence of a leader is necessary to stimulate the generation of ideas, as well as a preparation phase to gather the necessary information and information to approach the problem. A set downer writes the problem statement and the idea generated by the group on a white board.Several guidelines for cerebrate are available, such as suspend judgement, free wheel, quantity, and crossfertilise. The whole process takes normally one hour and can be conducted through several stages. The session begins with stating the problem and calling for solutions by the leader. The following stages can be restate the problem in the form of How to, select a basic restatement and write it squander as In how many ways can we, warm-up session, think, and advert wildest idea. An evaluation meth od is additionally used for to target the ideas that have a value for implementation.The four basic rules of brainstorming are a) no criticism and no prior judgement of any idea, b) all ideas, INNOREGIO project Dr E. Sefertzi CREATIVITY 8 even the absurd, are wel cum, c) quantity has value, the more ideas the better, if a large quantity of ideas is generated, therefore the idea pool very likely would control high-quality ideas, d) sharing and combining ideas, and constructing ideas based on those developed by other members of the group for producing new ideas. See Osborne (1963), Rawlinson (1981), Chen (1998), Higgins (1996), European Commission (1998).See also Annex, Table 2 Brainstorming phases. A special type of brainstorming tool is PMI in which the participants are directed to brainstorm the Plus points, consequently the Minus points and finally the Interesting points (De Bono 1992, 1993). Related to brainstorming, which is characterised by verbal communication, is also th e hand- indite communication as a brain-writing technique. The process is that ideas generated by individuals are written down on a plot of ground of make-up, and then exchanged and combined with those of the other individuals in the group.Written ideas are circulated and read by the other participants in the group each of whom, in turn, write down new ideas. A variation of this hand-written communication is the 6-3-5 method in which each of the 6 participants in the group generates and writes 3 ideas related to the problem on a piece of root word in 5 minutes. After 5 minutes, each participant passes the piece of paper to the person on the right, who reads it and adds 3 new ideas in 5 minutes. The process continues until each participant gets the original piece of paper back (European Commission 1998).Electronic brainstorming is also a hand-written communication technique, which employ computerised programs to achieve brainstorming. Story boarding It is a creativity technique f or strategic and scenario planning based on brainstorming and used in general by groups. It requires a leader, a secretary and takes place in a group of 8-12 people. The leader arranges the ideas generated by brainstorming in a logical order on a white board creating a report card. This technique surrenders identify the interconnections of ideas and how all the pieces fit together.It can be used to identify resultant roles, problems, solve a complex problem and determine ways to implement solutions. The story boarding process includes four phases a) planning, b) ideas, c) organisation and d) communication. Each phase includes a creative session (it takes 45 minutes) and a critical session, in which participants brushup their story board. The planning phase begins with the problem definition or the issue being examined the topic header. Purpose header, a miscellaneous chromatography column and other, normally one hundred one2, headers (column titles) are laced and brainstormed in order to give conceptions and then items, which are listed under the headers (the purpose header is listed first). The second phase the ideas board, is to take one column from the planning board, which becomes the topic header and the items of that column become headers of new ideas. In the third phase the organisation board, participants identify who is responsible for implementing chosen solutions, what has to happen, and when. In the last phase the communication board, participants identify who must lapse with for all of the events set in the organisation board to take place.Through the process, opthalmic graphics to summarise or present relevant points are presented by the leader. These might be strategic models, places or things (Higgins 1996). INNOREGIO project Dr E. Sefertzi CREATIVITY 9 Lotus Blossom This technique can also be used in scenario planning and is very useful for forecasting strategic scenarios. It is knowing for groups and is used to provide a mo re in-depth look at various solutions to problems. It begins with a central core idea surrounded by eight empty boxes or circles. Using brainstorming, eight additional ideas (solutions or issues) are written in these boxes.In the next step, each of these eight ideas becomes the core of another set of eight surrounding empty boxes, which are filled in by new ideas victimization brainstorming. The process continues until a satisfactory solution or a sufficient number of ideas have emerged (Higgins 1996). See Annex, Figure 1 Lotus blossom sample. Checklists This creative technique is used mainly for product improvement or modification. It involves applying a series of words, verbs, adjectives or phrases contained in go steadylists or tables to an existing product or service or its attributes.Osborns Checklist is the best known and includes the verbs put to other uses, adapt, modify, magnify, minify, substitute, rearrange, reverse and combine. Each verb contains also an expanded defini tion in the form of questions. For example, the description of the verb substitute is Who else sooner? What else quite? other division? new(prenominal) material? different process? Other power? Other place? Other approach? Other tone of voice? (Osborn 1963). The method is to apply each of the verbs and its expanded description to a product or service. See Annex, Table 3 Osborns checklist).Another checklist technique is Van Gundys PICL (product improvement checklist). Used in the kindred way as Osborns list, gives many options containing 792 words, both type and unique, that can be applied to existing products or services, and 102 stimulation questions (Van Gundy 1988, 1993). Morphological Analysis This method is another product improvement technique, permitting the in-depth analysis of products or processes. It involves applying a set of words to an item another set of words. no(prenominal)mally, one set of words is verbs and the other set are attributes of the product.Anoth er way is that one set of words would be components of the product (breaking the product down into its parts) and the other set of words would be alternative solutions. The method is to combine each word of one set with each word of the other set. These two sets of words result in a two-dimensional matrix. A three dimensional matrix can be created by adding a third list of factors. The difficulty of this technique is the large number of ideas deriving of the multiple combinations that can be made (Higgins 1996, European Commission 1998).Mapping Process The use of symbolises is particularly useful in strategic management thinking in organisations, serving to organise discontinuities, contradictions or differences, and pull in pattern, order and sense to a confusing situation, acting as a spatial representation of a perspective. There are many forms of interpret, including computer-based tools to support mathematical functionping Mind Mapping It is an individual brainstorming a ffair technique designed by Tony Buzan. It begins with a central focal point, a problem, an object, a name or issue, written inINNOREGIO project Dr E. Sefertzi CREATIVITY 10 the centre of a piece of paper with a circle around it. Each major facet of the problem or the solution to the problem originating from the central idea is then brainstorming in order to generate new ideas. Each of those ideas are then written on lines drowned outward from the circle. The next step is to brainstorm those ideas in order to identify issues related to the problem, or solutions that are written on little lines that are drowned on the prime lines forming a branch.Additional perspectives such as implementation factors or further definition of the solutions could go on those lines. One branch may also be chosen in order to develop a whole new mind map based on that branch. When a mind map is completed, its possible interrelations and possible multiple appearances of issues, and its overall meaning in the context of the problem must be examined (Buzan 1983). Mapping for generate corporate creativity The use of maps to support collective creativity is a more complicate process.It is necessary to introduce appropriate maps into a suitable type of organisation that would preferably be one employing multidisciplinary teams. It is also important that the participants find the maps useful for organising and planning their work. The mapping process usually involves three phases foremost phase starts with a brainstorming shape in order to initiate a coverion around the problem or the product. zero(prenominal)mally, the participants are asked to mention all aspects they regard as relevant to the problem to be dealt with.During this process a large number of opthalmic references are used to elicit the perspectives of the members with regard to the potential new concept. It is punctuate to the participants that the maps are intended to enrich the conversation, and should not be perc eived as representations of the concept itself, but more as the semantic terrain or space, which covers all potential strategies. The knowledge elicited is discussed, and in about 2 hours is coordinate and structured by the participants into a map that intuitively understand.This map is the initial cognitive map, which describes all the problematic areas in brief outlines. In the second phase of the process, which serves to expose the individual participants perspective both to themselves and to the other members of the group, the participants discuss the values that they associate with a very large range of objects and images. A number of these images are then selected that are considered to metaphorically represent potential aspects of the product strategy.In the 3rd phase, these images and appropriate annotations are arranged in a twodimensional space, positioning the images depending upon how the values of these objects relate to one another. In doing this, the group is mapping out a terrain constituted by the differences between the images, expressing the range of different product strategies open to the group (Fentem, Dumas & McDonnell 1998). For creating maps, many software applications are available (see further down in computer-based creativity techniques).The Excursion Technique Is a very useful technique for forcing a group to have new thought patterns to formulate strategies. The process involves five steps (see Higgins 1996) In the 1st step the field day the consultant asks participants to take an imaginary excursion to a physical location (a museum, a jungle, a city, another planet, etc. ), which INNOREGIO project Dr E. Sefertzi CREATIVITY 11 has nothing to do with the real problem. After the excursion each participant writes down 8-10 images, which he/she saw during the journey (things, people, places or items) in the 1st of 3 columns.In the 2nd step, the consultant asks participants to draw analogies or express relationships between what th ey saw on the excursion and the problem as defined, and to write them in the column 2 next to each of the items identified in the first column. In the 3rd step, participants are asked to determine what solutions to their problems are suggested by the analogies or the relationships in column 2, and write them in column 3 beside the items and analogies identified in the other columns. In the 4th step, participants handle their xperiences from the excursion what they saw, their analogies and their solutions. In the 5th step, as with brainstorming, participants may discuss on each others ideas. Eventually the leader helps the group come to a common solution or a set of solutions to the problem. Computer-based creativity techniques Computer-based supporting techniques to stimulate the human creative process have an immediate and pragmatic aim, which is the implementation of computational models (computer software) for generate and organise ideas for creative work.They are used more fre quently in research planning, product design, knowledge acquisition, decisionmaking, motivation, etc. We can distinguish groups of computerised creativity techniques, such as AI models, Idea Processors systems and opticisation and in writing(p) systems. AI (artificial intelligence) models of creativity AI deals with solving non-quantified, unstructured problems. Its task is about knowledge representation and reasoning and to built intelligent, rational, and autonomous agents. Current AI models of creativity involve different types and appropriate techniques of supporting the generation of new ideas.According to Margaret Boden (1998), in respect to the three types of creativity, there are also three main types of computer models that involve a) The stimulation of the combination of ideas, mainly by using analogies in the sense that associated ideas shares some inherent conceptual structure. b) The exploration of structured concepts, so that novel and unthought-of ideas result. It requires considerable domain-expertise and analytical power to define the conceptual space and to desexualize procedures that enable its potential to be explored. ) The transformation of a problem, so that new structures can be generated which could not have arisen before. New solutions to a problem can be created with transforming a problem into a new problem, solve the new problem and then adapting the solution back to the original problem. AI employs symbolic approaches for creative problem solving and includes stimulus such as heuristics, search, weak methods, knowledge representation and reasoning to facilitate problem structuring and idea generation. The focus of AI creativity techniques in the form of computerised programs, is to help users to take a fresh look at roblems by guiding what may be a users otherwise undisciplined intuition through a series of INNOREGIO project Dr E. Sefertzi CREATIVITY 12 problem-solving forms, and to think in non-linear et non-logical ways. T he main advantage of computerised, guided problem solving is that the programs invigorate a user for ideas in a thorough manner. Recent programs of AI include also knowledge-based approaches, using large-scale databases and narrative systems (Chen 1998). AI researches have also developed efficient search algorithms for problem solving.Some AI programs of creativity are The Copycat program that looks for analogies between alphabetic letter-strings (Hofstadter, FARG 1995, Mitchell 1993). The EURISKO program a transformational system with also an exploratory process that can be applied to a wide range of domains. The AARON program for exploring line drawing in particular styles and colouring (McCorduck 1991). The BACON program of exploratory AI-creativity designed to model scientific discovery (Langley, Simon, Bradshaw and Zytkow 1987).Idea Processors software Idea processors have a close relationship with artificial intelligence and use many artificial intelligence techniques. Id ea processors are normally software packages developed for personal computers or workstations. They are used for idea generation and organisation in some specific stages of problem solving acting as knowledge-support systems (Chen 1998). In order to assist the human thinking, idea processors usually perform extensive search in large databases, knowledge bases, or text bases. For many idea processors the electronic brainstorming is the most important technique to generate ideas.The use of computer programs helps to de-structure and then to restructure thinking in a different way. The Idea Generator Plus program provide seven components to the user, that permit to go through a step-by-step problem analysis and solution purpose process examine similar situations, examine metaphors, examine other perspectives, focus on goals, reverse the goals, focus on the people involved, and make the most of the ideas (Nirenberg 1985). In another program, the IdeaFisher, using hypertext databases fr om Fisher Idea Systems Inc. , all entries in the database are cross-referenced by concept and association.It uses a giant cross-referenced text base of words and phrases representing concepts and images enhanced by a series of questions (see also spatial hypertext systems). The program also allows to generate new ideas based on combination of words by creating a list of people, animals, verbs, adjectives and phrases that are associated with the combination of two words that a user choose. Some other programs related to an idea processor are The Ideatree system with an exploratory focus, linking laterally or hierarchically concepts that exist into the idea-boxes of the program.The Emergent Media Environment (EME), an interactive computer system that integrates facilities for supporting the generation, collection, organisation and presentation of ideas and advises about the divergence and convergence of the ideas. The GENI (GENerating Ideas) experimental system incorporates a variety of techniques to assist in making different types of connections inside connections (between elements of the focal problem itself) and external connections (between the focal problem and external factors). INNOREGIO project Dr E. Sefertzi CREATIVITY 13There are also many idea processors programmes available on the Internet (most of them are commercial products) including the following http/ideaprocessor. citi. doc. ca http/www. maxthink. com http/www. ozemail. com. au http/www. inspiration. com http/www. signet. com. sg/axon2000 Visualisation and graphical systems Computer support methods, such as visualisation of data and graphical techniques for marking up visual phenomena and expressing knowledge about data in rule form, are also available. Visualisation of data and graphical techniques are very important to support creativity.They involve working with visual data such as images, drawings, sketches, diagrams, charts, graphs, graphical objects, that are specific to the domain, an d they take the form of expressing ideas and concepts through sketching, annotation and examining multiple or alternative views of the same data, all of which varies according to the domain of interest. There are many such systems giving various opportunities to the users. A visualisation system, the Inspiration (from Inspiration Inc. ) provides a blank canvas in which the user can quickly record and arrange ideas as they occur and allows a visual approach to organising thoughts.The system can also change the relationship between ideas and connect related ideas by dragging kinks between them to create a graphical map of the users thinking. Another visualisation system is Axon 200 used for creating complex flowcharts or concept diagrams and describes how different factors or events influence each other. It uses checklists and visual attributes such as colour, shape, size, scale position, depth, link and icon. It also creates relationship diagrams, which allow the user to represent mu ltiple relationships between various visual objects on the screen (Chen 1998).Visualisation systems are also very important in design such as the Speech Knowledge Interface (SKI) system that support rapid graphical interaction with visual images, the Vehicle Packager Knowledge verify System (VPKSS) that aids designers at the conceptual stage of the design process (Candy 1997). Spatial representation tools In relation with visualisation systems, there are also computer-based tools, such as computer-based information and communication systems, for supporting representations and creating cognitive maps in two-dimensional spaces.Some representations use a specific notation, others use spatial proximity to indicate the relationship between objects (usually words relating to concepts) in the spaces, and others, used in marketing and design departments called mood boards, use collections of images as metaphors that reflect the quality aspects of the product strategy (Fentem, Dumas and Mcd onnell 1998). Kelly Repertory Grid technique is a knowledge elicitation tool used in the marketing, management and expert systems development. It hit the bookss data using principal components analysis (PCA) software and produces a map by plotting the INNOREGIO project Dr E. SefertziCREATIVITY 14 first two components. The map produces a spatial positioning of text with respect to dimensions that are significant or correspond to the personal constructs that the participant member uses to categorise and evaluate the world (Kelly 1955). An Internet version of this tool is Webgrid. Available at http//www. cpsc. ucalgary. ca/ Spatial Information Systems These systems have been designed to support creativity by mapping objects (concepts, text objects, design requirements and parameters) into two-dimensional spaces, using various combinations of knowledge process and multivariate statistical analysis techniques.Users can also select an area of this space and to create a new space by rep rocessing using principal components analysis (PCA) only the data associated with the objects lying within this subspace (Fentem, Dumas and Mcdonnell 1998). For example, one of these systems searches research papers for the frequency of certain keywords and uses a type of PCA to snap the results of this search and represent these keywords and the papers within a common twodimensional space (Sugimoto, Hori, Ohsuga 1996). Another system named En Passant 2 stores researchers notes and triggers to recall and to reconsider.The users can browse their notes and view relations among them interactively (Aihara, Hori 1998). Spatial hypertext systems These systems have been designed for the exploration of alternative structures for content, and applications in which the domain structure is not well understood at the outset, or changes during the course of a task. In spatial hypertext, the connect between nodes are conveyed implicitly by arranging the nodes in the space. Nodes appear in diffe rent contexts through multiple spatial references to the same underling content (marshal and Shipman 1995).The users are presented with a window that acts as a work- space in which they organise their material. The nodes arranged in the space represent links to familiar objects such as documents, images, comments, and links to WWW hypertext pages, plus more unique structures known as composites and collections. Marshall and Shipmans VIKI spatial hypertext system, for example, was designed to support new product development, helping teams to make sense of the many diverse kinds of business-related material relevant to the new product, by assisting them in arranging it spatially. 4BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES (1) Aihara, K. , Hori, K. (1998), Enhancing creativity through reorganising mental space concealed in a research notes stack, Knowledge-Based Systems, No. 11, pp. 469-478. Arlington, S. (1997), Accelerating medicine discovery creating the right environment, Drug Discovery Today, V ol. 2, No. 12, pp. 547-553. Boden, M. A. (1998), Creativity and artificial intelligence, Artificial Intelligence, No. 103, pp. 347-356. Bullinger, H. J. (1999), Turbulent times require creative thinking new European concepts in production management, Int. J. Production Economics, No. 0-81, pp. 9-27. Buzan, T. (1983) Use Both Sides of Your Brain, Dutton, New York. (2) (3) (4) (5) INNOREGIO project Dr E. Sefertzi CREATIVITY 15 (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) Candy, L. (1997), Computers and creativity support knowledge, visualisation and collaboration, Knowledge-Based Systems, No. 10, pp. 3-13. Chen, Z. (1998), Toward a better understanding of idea processors, Information and Software Technology, No. 40, pp. 541-553. De Bono, E. (1992), sound Creativity, Harper Collins, London. De Bono, E. (1993), De Bonos Thinking Course, Facts and on File, New York. t ogilvie (1998), inventive action as a dynamic strategy using imagination to improve strategic solutions in unstable en vironments, Journal of Business Research, No. 41, pp. 49-56. European Commission (1998), Innovation Management Techniques in Operation, European Commission, Luxembourg. Fentem, A. C. , Dumas, A. , McDonnell, J. (1998), Knowledge-Based Systems, No. 11, pp. 417-428. Hall, D. J. (1996), The role of creativity within best practice manufacturing, Technovation, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 115-121. Higgins, J. M. (1996), preface or evaporate creative techniques for strategists, Long string Planning, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 370-380. Higgins, J. M. (1994), 101 Creative Problem Solving Techniques the Handbook of New Ideas for Business, The New Management Publishing Company, Florida. (16) Higgins, L. F. (1999), Applying principles of creativity management to marketing research efforts in high-technology markets, industrial Marketing Management, No. 28, pp. 305-317. (17) Hofstadter, D. R. , FARG (1995), Fluid Concepts and Creative Analogies Computer Models of the Fundamental Mechanisms of Thought, elemen tal Books, New York. (18) Kelly, G. A. (1955), The Psychology of Personal Constructs, Norton. (19) Langley, P. , Simon, H.A. , Bradshaw, G. L. and Zytkow, J. M. (1987), Scientific Discovery Computational Explorations of the Creative Process, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. (20) McCorduck, P. (1991), Aarons Code, W. H. Freeman, San Francisco, CA. (21) Mansfield, R. S. , Busse, T. V. and Krepelka, E. G. (1978), The effectiveness of creative training Review of Educational Research, Vol. 48, No 4, pp. 517-536. (22) Marshall, C. C. , Shipman, F. M. (1995), Spatial hypertext designing for change, Communication of the ACM, Vol. 38, No. 8, pp. 88-97. (23) Miller, W. (1986), The Creative Edge, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA. (24) Mitchell, M. 1993), Analogy-Making as Perception, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. (25) Newell, A. and Shaw, J. C. (1972), The process of creative thinking, in A. Newell and H. A. Simon (eds), Human Problem Solving, apprentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, pp. 144-174. (26) Nirenber g, G. (1985), The Idea Generator, Experience in Software, Berkeley, CA. (27) Osborne, A. F. (1963), Applied Imagination Principles and Procedures of Creative Thinking, 3rd ed. , Scribner, New York. (28) Parnes, S. J. and Brunelle, E. A. (1967), The literature of creativity, Journal of Creative Behavior, Vol. 1, No 1, pp. 52-104. (29) Rose, L. H. and Lin, H. T. 1984), A meta-analysis of long-term creativity training programs, Journal of Creative Behavior, Vol. 18, No 1, pp. 11-22. (30) Rawlinson, J. G. (1981) Creative Thinking and Brainstorming, Gower, UK. (31) Schlange, L. E. , and Juttner, U. (1997), Helping managers to identify the key strategic issues, Long Range Planning, Vol. 30, No. 5, pp. 777-786. INNOREGIO project Dr E. Sefertzi CREATIVITY 16 (32) Sugimoto, M. , Hori, K. , Ohsuga, S. (1996) A system to take in different vantage points for supporting researches creativity, Knowledge-Based Systems, No. 9, pp. 369-376. (33) Taylor, C. W. (1972), Can organisations be creative, too? , in C. W. Taylor (ed. ), Climates for Creativity, Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 1-15. (34) Van Gundy, junior A. B. (1988), Product improvement check list, New Product Development Newsletter, New Jersay. (35) Van Gundy, A. B. Jr. (1993), Techniques of Structured Problem Solving, Chapman & Hall, London. INNOREGIO project Dr E. Sefertzi CREATIVITY 17 Annexes Table 1 Stimulus to extend perspectives to approach a problem List the elements that would bring on success. List the elements that we visualise as failure. Visualise success seen from the viewpoint of fifty eld from now.Visualise success seen from the perspective of one hundred years ago. Look for impossible and desirable ideas. Create analogies with other things that have been successful. infer and write down ideas that are wild, illegal, crazy, etc. Insert the problem from its present scenario to a totally different scenario. Return from the fantasy scenario to the present scenario and fork out to associa te the ideas generated in the fantasy scenario, with ideas that might apply to the real problem. hypothesize what people we admire would say. Search for pairs of ideas that are apparently unconnected and that can be associated by a third.Imagine that everything exists and all we have to do is find it. variegate the level on which the problem is approached. Source European Commission, Innovation Management Techniques in Operation, European Commission, DG XIII, Luxembourg, 1998. Table 2 Brainstorming Phases Phase Orientation Preparation Warm-up Production of ideas Application throttle the problem to be studied for the participants, clarify the rules of the game. Gather data and information necessary to approach the problem in an efficient manner. Carry -out the exercise redefine a problem different from the one to be studied, experiment with it for a few minutes.Generate the maximum of ideas without prior judgement always ask what else quantity of ideas is quality no limits no criticise modify others ideas to produce new ones. Let the subconscious work. Gather the ideas generated analyse them work with logical thinking. Evaluate the ideas gathered and analysed develop and combine them before proceeding to put them in practice. Incubation Syntheses Evaluation Source European Commission, Innovation Management Techniques in Operation, European Commission, DG XIII, Luxembourg, 1998. INNOREGIO project Dr E. Sefertzi CREATIVITY 18 Table 3 Osborns Checklist Question Put to other uses?Adapt? Description New ways to use as is? Other uses if modified? What else is like this? What other idea does this suggest? Does past lead parallel? What could I copy? Whom could I emulate? New move around? Change meaning, colour, motion, sound, odour, form, shape? Other changes? What to add? More time? greater frequency? Stronger? Higher? Longer? Thicker? Extra value? Plus ingredient? Duplicate? Multiply? Exaggerate? What to subtract? Smaller? Condensed? Miniature? bring lo w? Shorter? Lighter? Omit? Streamline? Split up? Understate? Who else instead? What else instead? Other ingredient? Other Material? Other process? Other power?Other place? Other approach? Other tone of voice? Interchange components? Other pattern? Other layout? Other sequence? Transpose cause and effect? Change pace? Change schedule? Transpose positive and negative? How about opposites? Turn it feebleminded? Turn it upside down? Reverse role? Change apparel? Turn tables? Turn other cheek? How about a blend, an alloy, an assortment, an supporting players? Combine units? Combine purposes? Combine appeals? Combine ideas? Modify? Magnify? diminish? Substitute? Rearrange? Reverse? Combine? Source J. M. Higgins, Innovate or evaporate creative techniques for strategists, Long Range Planning, Vol. 9, No 3, pp. 370-380, 1996 (reprinted from Alex Osborn, Applied Imagination, Charles Scribners & Sons, Inc. , New York). Figure 1 Lotus blossom sample INNOREGIO project Dr E. Sefertzi CREATIVIT Y 19 1 by packaging 4 smaller / bigger 6 other material 2 by design A product differenti ation 7 change color 3 other uses 5 plus ingredient 8 change meaning A product differentiati on D lower cost F impart flexibility B product quality core idea increase product consumption G product credibility C guest needs E service quality H competitors product strategies B C D E F G H INNOREGIO project Dr E. Sefertzi
Competition is becoming a key billet of high sh every last(predicate)ow academics. It seems as if everyday it becomes harder to be accepted into the college of your dreams. This is causation high tensity levels for teenagers. what with worrying about looking good, keeping friends, doing thoroughly in domesticate, and the growing pressure to plan your support by the cartridge clip youre 16, its amazing that we all(prenominal) get windnt gone crazy. Due to high stress caused by home induce, and lack of sleep, high school students should receive lighter loads from schools. The students of nowadays be stressed, not from the assumed bullying or peer pressure, except from homework and tests.Most of the stress is from academics as opposed to the typical surmise of bullying or social issues. States an article from Mind Shift. P argonnts assume that things same(p) that atomic number 18 the cause of the stress, but the real problem is homework. Then thither is the case of Nor a. A normal high school student, pressured with doing perfectly in school. When she received her grade card and saw that she did not have a perfect 4. 0, she lost it. Her mother appoint her in tears, and realized that it was period to Logan 2 intervene. Nora had been increasingly irrit sufficient and tired, and she also suffered from headaches. She is not the only one.Students everywhere, including myself and friends of mine, are tired, frustrated and sick. While stress can be healthy for our body, overly much can severely harm us. According to an article on the website WebMd, reviewed by Doctor Joseph Goldberg, large amounts of stress cause headaches, higher line pressure, heart and skin issues and conditions, and depression- the list goes on. These symptoms are not just found in adults, they are also found in teenagers. exalted stress levels early on in life will only curb to physical and mental problems in the future. The mental state of teenagers justifies that our load is likewise heavy.It is not an unknown fact that students these days do not have a lot of free clock time. We wake up at six, go to school, spend all day on the job(p), have extra curriculars after(prenominal) school, and all in all, most students do not end up reverting home until around seven oclock at night. We are then expected to help with dinner, help clean up dinner, and take care of other chores before we spend two to three hours working on homework assigned during the day. At this rate, the typical high school student is not acquiring to bed until close to 11 oclock. Thus, forcing them to cope with six hours of sleep per night far from what is selected.Sleep is extremely significant for teenagers. It affects our growth, our mental health, and our safety behind the wheel- it is food for our brain. The National Sleep introduction suggests that teenagers sleep for about 9 ? hours per night saying that 8 ? working for some. But in all reality, this is far from the amou nt of sleep teenagers are actually getting. The NSF found Logan 3 that only %15 of teenagers are getting that 8 ? hours. So, how does this lack of sleep affect our behavior, and success in school? It is shown that lack of sleep causes aggressive behaviors and a reduced immune system.Therefore, we are sick more often causing us to miss school. It is also shown that it becomes harder to focus, and listen. therefore, we do not learn. How do teachers expect us to complete tasking assignments if we are unable to focus, learn, and listen? Our lack of sleep, and increasingly reduced amounts of free time indicates the need for less time-consuming work. Parents and teachers, somehow, have come to believe that all of this is shaping us for the real world. Please explain to me how fosterage our stress levels and, ultimately, harming our physical and mental health is helping us?Today, we are expected to be able to manage an almost adult life by the time we are sixteen, but we need to spend mo re time learning and exploring all of our options. If it has become the norm to change major three time before you graduate college, then something is severely impairment with current society. Teenagers who are over loaded with after school work are becoming less and less mentally and physically stable. High schools can approach a new style of teaching, and issue curriculums that take less after school work. Issuing new types of curriculums including less after school work would most effectively help resolve the problems.I exceedingly doubt that the cost of this solution would be very high at all. I believe that states could afford this. The general public will rally the solution acceptable. When parents and teachers see how bad the situation is becoming, they will be able to convince policy makers to initiate Logan 4 the change. The parents of the students are the ones who really need to change. They are responsible for realizing the severity of the situation. As the writer of this piece I hope to show the public that times are changing and not necessarily for the better. It is my responsibility to show this.
Rob Milliron, a gimmick worker, was enjoying his lunch in an entertainment area of Tampa, Florida, when a government tv camera equipped with side wisdom technology took his motion-picture showgraph. The photo was engaged without Millirons consent in an article published in the U. S. News & small-arm Report. When a woman in Oklahoma misidentified Milliron after seeing that photo and contacted the law of nature department to have him arrested on child neglect charges, the man in the picture was forced to explain his innocence to law enforcement agencies.He told a newspaper once his explanation had been accepted They made me life like a criminal (Alexander & Richert-Boe). This case raises ethical concerns regarding governmental use of facial recognition charge. Although common use of this technology is yet to be realized in the United States, its future in areas of bail and exoteric safety appears rather promising. However, as Millirons case shows, there is an essence of l egality that federal statutes have non yet addressed with speech to face recognition surveillance.In order to understand the legality of face recognition technology, we have to bring into consideration the fourth part Amendment (Bennett, 2001). The United States imperative Court held in Katz v. United States that the Fourth Amendment would afford constitutional apology in those areas in which an individual reasonably expects privacy. For a private or public space to be recognized as one that is outdoor(a) the bounds of search, both the individual occupying the space as well lodge must recognize privacy interest in the space in question.Courts allow the use of video surveillance only in places where heap do not have reasonable expectations of privacy. These places may include sidewalks as well as public streets, workplaces in addition to entertainment areas (Bennett). Because Milliron should not have expected privacy in the public area he occupied, the point that government cameras took his photograph cannot be considered unethical.Benett writes that courts have found repeatedly that warrantless video surveillance of public areas does not violate the Fourth Amendment, and it seems plausibly that courts will take the same approach toward public surveillance systems incorporating facial recognition software (164). This is true despite the fact that facial recognition technology is marked by an unreasonable privacy invasion, and all individuals in the cameras path are subject to a police force lineup (Kasindorf, 2001).Bennetts claim that face recognition technology would not have a conflict with the Fourth Amendment is based on the fact that the new technology does not involve the kind of physical intrusion, such as the drawing of blood or the taking of urine samples that the Fourth Amendments searches involve. Moreover, the Supreme Court has maintained that new technological devices that kick upstairs the senses of law enforcement are entirely const itutional.The Supreme Court has further held that observations development technologies such as biometrics are made in areas where the police have a clear right to be present. Such observations are a part of plain view surveillance that may as well as be performed without the technology in question. Finally, it has been maintained that no technology may be considered an intrusion where the lack of the technology poses a threat to the warrantor of the people (Bennett). Although this line of reasoning is entirely acceptable, the fact remains that Millirons photograph was used without his consent.His subsequent experience with the photo was uncomfortable bountiful to refer to the publishing of the photo as misuse of study on the part of the government. It was an invasion of Millirons privacy to publish the photo without his consent. So, evening though the government is correct to use face recognition surveillance in public places for security reasons, it should vow never to misus e the information it gathers thus for security reasons alone.Milliron and other members of the general public should be asked whether they would deem to have their photos published with the caption, You cant hide those lying look in Tampa, as did Millirons photo in the U. S. News & human being Report (Alexander & Richert-Boe). Clearly, the government should be held as a lawbreaker if it takes photographs for security reasons and publishes them for other reasons.
Wednesday, February 27, 2019
This paper examines the impact of legal, refuge and the regulatory requirements of the human resources development in an nerve. This aspects look at the rights of the employee and the employer and how they argon secured. This human resources surgery affects the lawful, well-being, and governing guidelines inside a business fleck the privileges of those employers and resolveers be protected by the U. S. De destinyment of Labor, Equal Employment fortune guidance, Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, and the incision of motherland Security.The employee-related regulations are to guard the privileges of a order and drop deader. The U. S. Department of Labor gives organization an excellent effective setting and reduces function ratios by offering development within the organization. The human resources areas have to bank to having current rules and guidelines for salaries and times worked. And human resources management has to guarantee each strength whether United Stat es residents or non-United States mindful of any material may maybe be related (United States Department of Labor, 2011).According to the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 states it is unlawful to commemorate a capable various(prenominal) with a disability. The law states it is prohibited to contradict against an individual since the individual complained about injustice, filed an allegation of favouritism, or take part in discrimination complaint. It expects that employers fairly provide the known sensual or mental restrictions of an otherwise capable individual with a disability who is an applicator or employee, unless doing so would force an undue difficulty on the process of the employers business.The employees of Department of Homeland Security work diligently to impact the well-being and safety of the United States. They work with municipalities, people, and countries to support them plan for and device through from emergencies. They evaluate dozens of virtual se curity statements, and portions of intelligence, continuing unremitting communication with specialists all through the country to defend the United States well-nigh important buildings and resources.With the legislation of the Homeland Security Act of 2002, Department Homeland Security Secretary Tom Ridge made a consignment that the new human resources system would be the result of a cooperative and comprehensive process involving supervisors, employees, constancy organizations, and a expansive group of participants and specialists from the federal official division and private organization in order to deliver the superlative procedures possible for the employees of Homeland Security.The final guidelines administer to the new human resources for Department Homeland Security is evidence to that commitment The Equal Employment fortune Commission defends all employees working inside a corporation against discrimination regarding age, disability, sex, national origin, color or rac e. The human resources organization has to stay in agreement by making sure that all supervisors are passing capable to properly relate with employees in the process of hiring, training, advancing, and dismissing. This law is implement by a federal agency, the Equal Employment probability Commission (EEOC).This law is laid out into three segments that consist of e internal torment, favorable action, and bear upon opportunity. These three diverse segments have a bulky influence on the human resources division, and the employment process and this department must(prenominal) follow the law. These equal opportunity regulations will guarantee an employee is given an equal opportunity while submitting an application or resume for a post at an organization regardless of race, age, or gender. When looking at affirmative action this process allows an organization to hire individuals which fit in to a certain group of individuals.The sexual harassment process is put into the work e nvironment to guarantee employees some(prenominal) women and men are secured under both federal and state law, sexual harassment can be verbal, physical or both, this type of harassment cannot only affect an employees work environment, but more importantly that person emotional well-being. Sexual harassment can make an employee feel uncomfortable coming to work, prevents them from focusing on their tasks work, and they can take that emotional stress home with them.The Title 7 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 law makes it unlawful to discriminate against any individual basis on race, color, religion, national origin, or sex. It also makes it unlawful to respond hostile to an individual because the individual protested about discrimination, filed a charge of discrimination, or participated in a discrimination lawsuit (U. S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 2011). This law also states that supervisors reasonably provide candidates and employees time to tie religious customs, except if doing so would inflict an unnecessary stress on the owners organization.This also goes for the federal government and employment services, and labor establishments, also need to acknowledge the law. The majority of discrimination lawsuits claim a violation of this law. In regards to the statement that, Common sense and compassion in the workplace has been replaced by litigation. I look up the definition and it state that Common sense is sound practical judgment derived from experience preferably than study. And compassion is sympathy for the suffering of others, often including a desire to answer (Encarta 1999).Guidelines and procedures are put in place to defend employees and employers. Nevertheless, not all procedures and guideline are for every employee or employer. Every situation is different and has to be approach differently no two people are the same. A human resources manager has to be able to look at these different situations and make a choice thats good for the organization employees. Making the right decisions protect the organization from lawsuits. The distress of upsetting employees or possible ligation has caused human resources departments to outline guidelines and procedures.
Despite the plethora of conspiracies surrounding the death of death chair Kennedy there is overwhelming evidence documentation the theory that a single gunman, lee(prenominal) Harvey Oswald, killed President Kennedy. History tends to double over its self time and time again. In this scenario it is the bravoation of a President first President Lincoln then Garfield, McKinley, and lastly the roughly disputable of them all, President John Fitzgerald Kennedy. The details surrounding his death shit been analyse and questioned for decades and will be for decades more to come.One of the most controversial details in the J. F. K bravoation was how many men gunned down the President on one of the most historical days in this Countrys history. Despite all of the controversy surrounding the death of the President, the clearest and most rational answer for who shot and killed the President is Lee Harvey Oswald. On the afternoon of November 22, 1963 timidity struck the Nation when Presid ent Kennedy was shot and killed while riding in his motorcade through Dealey Plaza in downtown Dallas.Allegedly the shots that were fired came from the sixth report of the Texas School Book Depository and were shot by the infamous Lee Harvey Oswald. The first shot hit Kennedy in the back, and went through his throat. The same type slug then hit Governor Connelly in the back after shattering a rib and, hit him in the articulatio radiocarpea and then in his thigh. The second shot was the fatal shot to the right hand side of Kennedys head which then went on to injure a bystander. Lastly the one-third and final shot hit the curb as the Presidents limousine raced off to get away from the danger.During Oswalds failed attempt to flea from authorities officer J. D. Tippit was shot to death shortly after the President was killed Oswald denied some(prenominal)(prenominal) killings. Two days after the death of the President as millions of Americans watched cocksucker cherry-red, a Da llas nightclub owner, pushed his way through police officers and shot the aver assassin. Ruby was convicted for the murder of Oswald. only three years later the reliance was over-ruled due in f lick that the judge allowed in illegal testimony. Ruby died of cancer before the second trial could be held.Why was Kennedy assassinated, and by who? neither of those questions will ever be answered yet Kennedy was greatly disliked in the Soviet Union during the Cold War and in Cuba greatly for the Cuban Missile Crisis on October 8, 1962-roughly a year before the Presidents tragic death. each country could have hired Oswald to assassinate the President except apt(predicate) if this was the case the Soviet Union would be more likely to have had a part in Kennedys black lotion due in part to the fact that Oswald left the U. S. to gain citizenship with the Soviet Union but was turned down.On the other hand Cuba could have hired the lone assassin to assassinate the President over the Cuba n missile crisis, when President Kennedy had Cuba take apart the missile system that the Soviet Union had placed there which was in fact pointed at the United States as well as having both missiles in Turkey, Thor and Jupiter. One of the biggest reasons there are so many conspiracies out(p) there is because of the second punch that was fired at the President, which was called the magic bullet it was said to have done numerous things.It apparently went through Kennedys upper back and out his neck, then took a sharp right turn to go through Connallys back shattered a rib and came out his chest. After that, the bullet went through Connallys wrist and then fell to lodge into Connallys right upper thigh. Yet according to the Warren Report that was written by the Warren delegacy in September of 1964 the bullet never made any locomote or funky turn. Connally was baseed in a booster seat in front of the President which is not level with the Presidents seat, it is three inches lower t han Kennedys seat.Also the booster seat is six inches far towards the middle of the car. Lastly Governor Connally was not sitting straightforward in his seat. He is turned to his right, as seen in the Zapruder Film. Therefore the bullets path would lease perfect sense a straight line through both men. In conclusion there is overwhelming evidence that Lee Harvey Oswald was the assassin that took the life of one of our countries most profound leaders, President John F. Kennedy, and acted alone. The think for Oswalds actions may never be uncovered was he hired to get a point across for payback, or did he act alone? The answers to these questions have been washed away into the history textbooks of our children and their children to come. May no one ever truly know the meaning behind the assassination of President Kennedy or who really took the life of President, but as the most backed up and legitimate answer is Lee Harvey Oswald.
In your everyday life, you atomic number 18 placed in situations that get out you to encounter the value of carefully considering soul elses perspective. The reason why it is so eulogized to see someone elses view is beca social function it could alter how things would at last turn out to be for you and that person(s). Peace, equality, and justice are some of the value you come across when you approach with empathy. Comprehending where someone is feeler from and feelings they convey correlates with the endpoint of peace.In 1993, the ongoing conflict between Israel and Palestine had temporarily halted with a dissolver called the Oslo peace process, which main point consisted that Israel gradually depart up possession of Palestinian territories to the Palestinians with the exchange of peace. This represents the value of perspective, because the Palestinians had finally reached the conclusion that coming at the Israelis with violence and weaponry would not allow the Palestinian s to ever bring forward what they really want, and it caused the Palestinians to comprehend what the Israelis were feeling harassed.They had learned that if peace were used as a substitution to attack, then the good get across of Israel would be sure to ably, which they transitorily did. Another value would be justice. When an lawyer is defending their client, they tend to use the skill of switching to the defendants perspective when trying to seek to the jury that they are not guilty. For example, if someone was falsely accused of murder, the attorney could use empowering words and point things out like Just figure if you were in his/her place or How do you think you wouldve felt if you were him/her? to give the jury that connection that Would you want to be proven guilty if you were to celestial latitude under a situation similar to this one? Using this proficiency shows how perspective comes in handy as well as how justice is served. Equality is a reiterating value that is discovered when considering someone elses perspective. In Remember the Titans, a film just about how an African American named Herman Boone who is new appointed head high school football coach in the position of a successful white coach, Bill Yoast, during the time of segregation, in that location is a scene where condition Yoasts daughter, Sheryl s over at the Boones set up when an anonymous student from the school drives by and yells Hey, Coach Boone in a tormenting manner and throws something at their window near to where Sheryl had been sitting, shattering it to pieces. Later that wickedness Yoast tells Coach Boone that he is not in any position to rate his daughters refuge on the line just because people dont like him coaching the team, to which Boone replies Well what about my girls safety?You just got a taste of what I deal with everyday, Yoast leaving Coach Yoast thoughtful and silent. This also shows perspective because Coach Yoast had understood that the worry and the vexation, that had horny from the danger of his daughter is a mental weight and distress that Boone has to deal with for his family all the time, all because of the color of his skin. By stepping into Boones shoes, Yoast had now really known the importance of equity and fairness to Boone, and the rest of the African American society.These are just a few ethics you can earn from point-of-view. Agreement between even two nations can come about when using perspective. Authority can be placed with shifting someones point-of-view through sympathy. And adequation will make its way through when you are physically put forth into the same situation that someone who isnt treated fairly is. All of these are real and pure set that form when your mindset is reversed, and truly leave you thinking.
Throughout history the power of giving medication plays a leading function in the turning points of how the governance should expand its branches and support its country. In the events of the override Crisis and the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions, two opposed how the regime grew its power. Although the power of the national government change magnitude during the early republic, this development often faced serious opposition. As the government throughout the years increase its power, states government cant help but adjure for their rightlys.States began opposing the national governments decisions as their decisions questioned civil liberties. In order to powerfully support their cause, state governments began to declare national laws null and void. In the events of the override Crisis and the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, these events help embody the clear differences between both opposing principals of government power- states rights and federal officialism. The Nu llification Crisis arose during the Presidency of Andrew capital of Mississippi, as the people of the South strongly agree to lift, avoid and ignore federal law, they disagreed with Congress rulings.As the new president, Jackson did not powerful prepare to handle his presidency, he did not properly handle the protests against the Tariff of 1828. Members of the South felt that the tariff affected the southeastward more than the north. As the federal government began to increase its power, the fear of a corrupt government and power hungry officials, with accordance with John. C. Calhoun beliefs, the south began to nullify and ignore national law. These attempts challenged the federal government and caused disputes between states and federal law.However, as states eagerly began to protest against tariffs and rulings the Federal government did not allow grey states to nullify their tariff. This shows how strong their power is and how they clearly display that their rulings are impor tant. The motives of the southerly states protesting against federal law is due to unfair attention between the southerly and northern states. The Nullification Crisis of 1832 denotative the idea that states representing the people gull the right to judge the constitutionality of federal decisions.Before the Nullification Crisis, the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions began doubting federal actions as well. The resolutions were passed in opposition to the Alien and Sedition Acts which were ruled by federal law. As the Jeffersonian Republicans first enacted the Kentucky resolutions, it was an attack to the Federalist interpretation of the constitution. Also, the resolutions protest against limitations on civil liberties. They interpreted that the national government would extend its powers over the states.The resolutions expressed that the constitution established an agreement between states and the federal government. In which the federal government has no right to expand its power s under the terms of the agreement. precisely just like the nullification crisis, other states disagreed and ignored their statements. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions declared that states have the right to decide on the constitutionality of federal rulings. Throughout history the revive of federal power has states disagreeing with their decisions.Although neither the south states or the federal government won the conflict of the Nullification Crisis, it resulted great tension between the two groups. Citizens realized that President Jackson became untrustworthy to their motives of refusing federal law. The crisis defined that the powers of both the federal government and the state government. As both events lead up to the Civil War, these events marked that the voice of the states should be heard. Although the resolutions did not meet their goal, it revealed that the collide with between states and federal government embodied principal roles of government.
Tuesday, February 26, 2019
Whistle-blowing has had a long and venerable tradition in the history of politics. From Cicero and his Catiline Orations to Cynthia barrel maker at WorldCom, whistle blowers have existed for as long as there was governmental intrigue and power on the line.For this essay, however, the focus will be on one particular famous historical whistle-blower Sir doubting Thomas More, a former chancellor to Henry VIII of England. This essay will strive two things to compare Sir Thomas More to recent famous whistle-blowers and to check over what makes an effective whistle-blower.By way of background, in 1534 King Henry VIII of England seek an annulment from his premier wife, Catherine of Aragon, in order to marry Anne Boleyn. (Brigden) More resigned from the Chancellorship when the face Parliament enacted several acts designed to wrest authority over the side church service from Rome when the Kings annulment was refused by the Pope. (Williams) He was eventually executed for his refusal to cooperate.Sir Thomas More, as portrayed in Robert drive offs play called A Man For All Seasons, is the penultimate cosmos of conscience. In one of the more famous lines from the play, Sir Thomas answers Norfolks pleas for crime syndicate on the matter of the Act of Succession by replying, And when we stand in the lead God, and you are sent to Paradise for doing according to your conscience, and I am blamed for non doing according to mine, will you come with me for fellowship? (Bolt)This shows the esteem with which Sir Thomas More held the human conscience, and deemed that a man ought to live and die by the dictates of that conscience.This particular trait is something he shares with modern-day whistle-blowers like Linda Lewis of the Food synthetic rubber and Inspection Service of the US Department of Agriculture, who blew the whistle on her deputations lack of preparedness in the event of a terrorist attack. She claimed that some(prenominal) More and Martin Luther were her inspirations when she made the decision to blow the whistle, quoting Martin Luthers Peace if possible, that truth at any rate. (Andersen)Sir Thomas More likewise had the advantage of a strong faith, which lent him transcendent moral ideals. He was the Kings good servant, but Gods first, whose answer to Norfolks questioning of the c at one timept of Apostolic Succession1 was, But what matters to me is not whether its true or not but that I believe it to be true. (Bolt) His faith was tied to his notions of conscience, and a violation of a transcendent moral principle was more intolerable than political and personal upheaval. Whistle-blowing potbelly be a very isolating act.A whistle-blower often breaches expectations of committal from the group he or she belongs to. (Bok) This leads to retaliation from the group the whistle-blower once expected to be safe in. However, a transcendent belief, be it in the form of ethics, religious beliefs, community allegiances, ontological securi ty, economic security or political ideology, helps whistle-blowers identify with a higher authority and gives them the fortitude to go through with the act and withstand the strong pressure to conform. (Jasper)More shares this trait with FBI whistle-blower Fred Whitehurst, who claimed that his religious faith sustained him in his decision to against his superiors in a matter of evidence tampering. (Andersen)1 Apostolic Succession is the doctrine that all bishops of the Church are successors of the Apostles, with the Pope succeeding St. Peter.
The contributing factors that I ap eyeshade were caused for the rise of racism are the exploitation relations that Europeans open with the heaps they conquered, an impedance between the colors white and black as heathenish symbols was deep rooted In European culture, and the Invention and spreading of the innovation of race Itself. Today racism Isnt that big of a get by like It was fanny In the colonial era, but It still washbasin register up out of nowhere. We dont check into separate water fountains, we dont drag Afri rear end Ameri screwings sit in the back of the bus, and we dont have laws prohibiting hem on what they ordure and push asidet do.A lot has changed from then and now and its for the better. As we think back on how we treated African Americans I think most peck can say how harm and selfish we were. To bass some ones favorable spot on the color of their skin is not safe to some(prenominal) spot and the world has grown from the mistakes that ha ppened. For my major, criminal entirelyice, I will hired man with numerous situations where someone will call me anti-Semite(a). Its not something that will go aside because some propagation African Americans rely on It to get a point across or blame what happened on you In in any case necessary.There was a time where whites believed having black was symbolic for evil. They didnt think It was right to be a different color and indigenceed to blame all the wrong deportment or plagues on the blacks. This resulted in the formation of the UK Klux Klan where they took African Americans from their homes and hung them. They didnt have to do anything wrong per say, the whites incisively believed being black was wrong. The whites emergencyed to do reckon African Americans finger fear so they made rules they had to follow so they kept them in line in a way. Racism doesnt Just emphasis on African Americans, it can connect with Asians, and Mexicans.Racism has exists for thousands of years and I feel it will never disappear because of how parents raise their children to believe what they were taught suppuration up. Parents ordering their kids that blacks are bad and they everlastingly get into trouble Isnt something you want to instill them. Everyone Is different and Like some say you cant stress a disk by Its cover. I also dont feel Its right to insure your kids that the police are bad people who just want to evil you. Thats not true at all so to tell your kids slap-up if the bat that things are set this way and you should follow this, usage cooperate them have an open mind.Immigration is always a big roll in the hay with the only process to become a U. S. Citizen. Immigrants are viewed as people approach to steal their jobs because the Jobs that they commonly go for are minimum pursue and no benefits. Its usually Mexicans who come into the U. S. And find low paying Jobs and they usually work very hard for the little money they make. Like I verbalise before, police officers have to deal with being called a racist some every day because they have to use force or arrest someone for a warrant.Having to e that guy to put up with It Is harder because even so though youve gone through It so many times and Just want to say Im not racist Just riding habit trimmed It. Police officers are doing their job and if you happen to be African American or Asian then thats the way Being vernal and tone ending to school as the only African American can be tough for some if their parents taught them blacks are bad like in the colonial days. It can also be because of the area you live in, such(prenominal) as more whites to blacks. The way people view each separate and Judge the way they look will never change, but theres always something you can do to stop it.NoneThe contributing factors that I found were caused for the rise of racism are the exploitation relations that Europeans established with the peoples they conquered, an opposi tion between the colors white and black as cultural symbols was deeply rooted In European culture, and the Invention and diffusion of the concept of race Itself. Today racism Isnt that big of a deal Like It was back In the colonial era, but It still can show up out of nowhere. We dont have separate water fountains, we dont make African Americans sit in the back of the bus, and we dont have laws prohibiting hem on what they can and cant do.A lot has changed from then and now and its for the better. As we think back on how we treated African Americans I think most people can say how wrong and selfish we were. To bass some ones social status on the color of their skin is not right to any degree and the world has grown from the mistakes that happened. For my major, criminal Justice, I will deal with many situations where someone will call me racist. Its not something that will go away because sometimes African Americans rely on It to get a point across or blame what happened on you In anyway necessary.There was a time where whites believed having black was symbolic for evil. They didnt think It was right to be a different color and wanted to blame all the wrong doings or plagues on the blacks. This resulted in the formation of the UK Klux Klan where they took African Americans from their homes and hung them. They didnt have to do anything wrong per say, the whites Just believed being black was wrong. The whites wanted to make African Americans feel fear so they made rules they had to follow so they kept them in line in a way. Racism doesnt Just focus on African Americans, it can connect with Asians, and Mexicans.Racism has exists for thousands of years and I feel it will never disappear because of how parents raise their children to believe what they were taught growing up. Parents notice their kids that blacks are bad and they always get into trouble Isnt something you want to teach them. Everyone Is different and Like some say you cant Judge a book by Its cove r. I also dont feel Its right to tell your kids that the police are bad people who just want to hurt you. Thats not true at all so to tell your kids straight if the bat that things are set this way and you should follow this, wont help them have an open mind.Immigration is always a big deal with the whole process to become a U. S. Citizen. Immigrants are viewed as people coming to steal their jobs because the Jobs that they usually go for are minimum wage and no benefits. Its usually Mexicans who come into the U. S. And find low paying Jobs and they usually work very hard for the little money they make. Like I said before, police officers have to deal with being called a racist almost every day because they have to use force or arrest someone for a warrant.Having to e that guy to put up with It Is harder because even though youve gone through It so many times and Just want to say Im not racist Just wont cut It. Police officers are doing their job and if you happen to be African Amer ican or Asian then thats the way Being young and going to school as the only African American can be tough for some if their parents taught them blacks are bad like in the colonial days. It can also be because of the area you live in, such as more whites to blacks. The way people view each other and Judge the way they look will never change, but theres always something you can do to stop it.